First of all,
What are your thoughts on leadership?
For example, when I look at historical figures like Oda Nobunaga and Saigo Takamori, I think they are innate qualities.
However, in managerial terms, such an idea is rejected (the above idea is called characteristic theory).
Rather, it is a general idea from a management point of view that the performance of leadership changes not only depending on the qualities of the person, but also on the environment and relationships with others.
One of the ideas in business administration based on this idea is the "pass-goal theory."
Premise of Pass Goal Theory
The pass-goal theory is how leaders help their followers achieve their goals. In other words, there are followers (subordinates) who score goals, and the leader thinks about how to make a good pass.
Therefore, the premise of the pass goal theory is as follows.
Leaders can flexibly change their leadership depending on the situation.
・There are two situations that leaders face: environmental situations and follower (subordinate) situations.
In other words, the pass goal theory is to explain what kind of leadership to take to support followers (subordinates) according to the environment and the situation of subordinates, and how to interact with followers (subordinates) by looking at the environment and the situation of subordinates.
In the pass-goal theory, leadership behavior is classified into the following four categories, and leaders can flexibly change this behavior.
|Directive Reader||Communicate what to expect from your followers, set work schedules, and give specific instructions on how to accomplish your job|
|Supportive Leaders||Caring for your followers' needs and being friendly|
|Participatory Leader||Consult with your followers and make decisions based on their suggestions|
|Achievement-oriented leaders||Set goals that aren't easily achievable and expect your followers to give their all|
Environmental and employee status variables
In taking the above leadership actions, leaders are affected by two variables.
Environmental Status Variables
These are elements that followers are not free to change, such as:
・Formal authority relationship
Employee Status Variables
Personal characteristics of followers include:
Locus of control (the degree to which you believe you are in control of your life)
・Ability to recognize
Based on the above, in the pass goal theory, leaders consider what kind of results can be obtained when they take certain leadership actions based on environmental and employee situation variables.
In other words, if you take leadership actions that are appropriate to the environment and employee situation, you will achieve results, but conversely, if you take leadership actions that do not match the situation, you will not be able to expect sufficient results.
Specifically, these include:
If clear … Supportive leadership performs better and followers are happier.
Leaders only need to support their followers and don't need specific instructions.
If unclear … Achievement-oriented leadership leads to higher performance because it raises follower expectations with challenging goals.
Also, when you're stressed, your followers don't know what to do, so your satisfaction with directive leadership will increase.
(Experience, cognitive ability)
If your followers have these, they're more likely to think that they are capable of doing their job and don't need directive leadership.
(Conflicts within the group)
When there is conflict in the group, a leader is required, which increases the satisfaction of directive leaders.
(Locus of Control)
Internal type … Followers think they can change things on their own, so participatory leadership is more satisfying.
External type … Followers attribute their situation to the external environment, which increases satisfaction with directive leadership.
As described above, in the path goal theory, the leadership that should be taken differs depending on the environment and the situation of the employee.
Of course, there are various types and combinations, so it is not possible to use this theory as it is.
However, I think it is very important for leaders to look at the environment and the situation of their employees and change their style.
Stephen P. Robbins, David A. Dicenzo, Mary Coulter, Introduction to Management